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Introduction of Kagla’s Ammonia (Anhydrous Ammonia) vaporizer
Characteristics of Ammonia (NH3)
Ammonia, which does not generate carbon dioxide when burned, is attracting attention as a gas suitable for environmental protection.
Due to its characteristics, its use in gas turbines and engines for ships and cars is being studied as a next-generation eco-friendly fuel.
Other applications include chemical raw materials, refrigerants, fuels for thermal power generation, hydrogen storage substances, denitration, etc., and their applications and possibilities are wide-ranging.
For industrial use, it is often used for heat treatment of metal surfaces such as Nitriding.
As mentioned above, ammonia is a substance with various potentials, but there are some aspects that need to be handled with care, such as toxicity to living organisms and corrosiveness.
In addition, when used for heat treatment, etc., a stable supply of gas is required, but since ammonia has a high boiling point, it may not be possible to vaporize an amount that satisfies the gas consumption by natural vaporization. Frost on cylinders and tanks is common in equipment that consumes ammonia by natural vaporization. And thus Ammonia Vaporizer is required.
Kagla’s Ammonia vaporizer – solution for stable supply of Ammonia vapor
Based on more than 60 years of knowledge and experience in the manufacture and sale of LPG vaporizers, Kagla has developed a dedicated ammonia vaporizer that provides a stable supply of ammonia vapor.
While sharing the safety mechanism and operational stability with the LPG vaporizer, all the routes of ammonia gas are made of Stainless Steel, which is corrosion resistant, all welded construction, all flange connection structure.
EVA-AX5 is designed exclusively for ammonia gas users.
Advantages of Electric Water Bath type Ammonia vaporizer
Advantages of Electric Water Bath type vaporizer would be controllability, vaporization stability and safety. Electric heater warms the water in the bath. And this hot water indirectly heats the liquid Ammonia running through the heat exchange tube.
As the heat source is hot water with a gradual temperature change, the vaporization ability is stable and controllable. And even if there is a problem with the heat source, the vaporization ability can be exerted while the water is warm.
- Water temperature controlled between 75-85℃
- Spiral shape heat exchanger tube for smooth and stable vaporization
- Patented technology of Float Valve + Magnet system to prevent liquid carry over
- External Electrical Control panel for monitoring and Self-Diagnosis function
As the Liquid Ammonia (NH3) is heated indirectly by the hot water, it is safer than Direct Fire type vaporizers. And generally, Electric Water Bath type can be installed much closer to the tank / cylinders. And its operation is noiseless.
VAPORIZER DESIGNED EXCLUSIVELY FOR AMMONIA
Ammonia vaporizer EVA-AX5 has the corrosion-resistant structure consisted of stainless steel, rubber and valves including safety relief valve for regular material component in order to deal with the corrosive nature of Ammonia Gas.
Material on all gas route are stainless steel, all welded construction, all flange connection structure.
ADVANCED SAFETY MECHANISM
- FLOAT VALVE with built-in magnet (KAGLA’s Patented Technology) prevents Ammonia liquid carryover.
**1. Operation principle in the picture below.
- WATER LEVEL SWITCH and SAFETY THERMOSTAT prevents over-heating of water bath
USER FRIENDLY INTERFACE
- Multi function electric control panel with digital indicator equipped.
**2. See below for more details
SPACE SAVING COMPACT BODY
- Compact body size with Maximum Function designed upon long term experience of KAGLA since 1958.
EASY MAINTENANCE STRUCTURE
- Head cover of AX5 is removable for easy maintenance and overhaul.
WIDE RANGE OF SELECTIONS
- 6 different vaporization capacity models from 20kg/hr to 170kg/hr.
- Structure designed to minimize drainage to remain inside.
Vaporization mechanism of KAGLA Electric Water Bath type vaporizers
Electric Water Bath type vaporizer AX5 has Water Bath with Electric heater and the heat exchanger submurged in the water bath. The water temperature is controlled between 75-85℃ for stable vaporization.
Liquid Ammonia (NH3) goes into the heat exchange tube in spiral shape.
While the liquid goes through this tube heated in the hot water, it is vaporized and comes into the gas chamber.
And then it flows to the outlet for gas consumption.n.
Function of Float Valve system (**1) – KAGLA patented technology
FLOAT VALVE is a safety function to prevent Ammonia liquid carryover to the consumption side.
1) Float Valve shut off mechanism
Float Valve is a safety mechanism to prevent Liquid Carryover to the consumption side.
When the gas consumption exceeds the vaporization capacity of the vaporizer, Vaporization may not catch up with gas consumption by the combustion equipment.
In this case, the non-vaporized liquid Ammonia will come into the gas chamber.
The KAGLA Float Valve will be lifted upwards by the liquid and shut off the valve tightly with magnet connection.
This is a safety device that works reliably without using electricity or pilot air.
It also works in cases such as electric blackout, heater disconnection and others.
Due to the phenomenon that the liquid pushes up the float, the gas chamber outlet is closed by the valve at the top of the float and prevent the Ammonia liquid from flowing to the consumption side. Since it does not require external sources such as electricity or pilot air, it is a system that operates reliably under all circumstances.
- It is a normal operation state where the hot water temperature is appropriate and heat exchange with the Ammonia liquid is normally performed. Since there is only Ammonia vapor in the gas chamber, the float is seated at the bottom position and thus the float valve is open.
- When the temperature of hot water drops and heat exchange does not occur properly, unvaporized Ammonia liquid flows into the chamber. Then the liquid collected in the chamber pushes up the float valve.
- If gas consumption continues in this state, the float valve will be forcibly closed by the powerful magnet placed on the top of the float valve.
The flow switch mounted on the side of the chamber detects that the float valve is closed, and the error code No. 3 is displayed on the control panel.
2) Procedure to reset the float valve shutoff
- Refer to the display on the control panel to identify the cause of the float valve closure and eliminate the problem.
- Turn on the vaporizer and heat the water in the hot water tank with the electric heater.
- Close the liquid inlet and gas outlet valves and slowly open the drain valve to release the Ammonia in the chamber and heat exchanger to reduce the internal pressure.
- When the water temperature reaches 75℃, open the valves in each part and push in the reset rod to open the float valve.
Since a strong magnet holds the valve, some force is required to push the rod down.
If the reset rod cannot be pushed in at all, there may be liquid remaining in the chamber. Open the drain valve to check and release it if necessary.
Self-diagnosis Function – Display on Electric Control Panel (**2.)
- Operation status of vaporizer can be monitored on the electric control panel from remote place.
- Combination of “lighting on” and “flashing on/off” indicate both the operation status and the cause of the problem.
- When the numbers 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 are displayed, operation of the vaporizer is interrupted.
Cause of the problem and Countermeasure
- No.2 displayed : Low Water Warning.
Detects and warns that the water level is falling. Add water to the water vessel.
*The operation of the vaporizer does not stop at the warning stage.
- No.3 displayed (lighting) : Float Valve Shutoff (overload / heater defective). Float Valve Shutoff
(caused by：i)overload / heater defective or ii)heater disconnection)
i) Do not consume gas exceeding the vaporization capacity of the vaporizer. Please change to a vaporizer with higher vaporization capacity or add another vaporizer to cover the shortage.
ii) Check the three-phase power supply of the heater(s).
- No.3 displayed (flashing) : Float Valve Shutoff (thermostat defective)
Float Valve Shutoff （caused by：thermostat defective)<by：thermostat> Please replace thermostat.
- No.4 displayed : Low Water Level Shutdown
If the water is not filled in when the water level warning (No.2) was displayed and the water level drops further, the vaporizer will shut down.
Add water to the water vessel and restart.
- No.5 displayed (lighting) : High Water Temperature Shutdown
(control circuit defective / magnet switch welded)
Vaporizer shutdown due to abnormal temperature (water temperature 90℃) detection.
Control circuit failure or magnet switch welding (need part replacement).
- No.5 displayed (flashing) : High Water Temperature Shutdown (thermostat defective)
Vaporizer shutdown due to abnormal temperature (water temperature 90℃) detection.
Thermostat failure (need part replacement).
- No.6 displayed : Float Valve Shutoff by blackout (not a defect)
Float Valve Shutoff (caused by： Blackout – water temperature drops)
After the power is restored, restart the vaporizer, vaporize the liquid in the chamber, release the pressure in the chamber / heat exchanger, and then reset the float to restore the gas supply.
|Water Bath Capacity||liters||50||50||95||120||130||275|
|Heat Exchanger Design Pressure||kg/cm2||24.6|
|Liquid inlet bore||DN20-PN40 I||DN25-PN40 II||DN25-PN40 I|
|Gas outlet bore||DN25-PN40 I||DN25-PN40 I||DN32-PN40 I|
|Hydrostatic Test Pressure||kg/cm2||36.9|
|Relief Valve Setting Pressure||kg/cm2||24.6|
|Flame-Proof Electric Heater||kW||8||14||21||28||42||63|
|Vaporizer Control Panel Dimensions(mm)||Width||300||450|
|Design Standard Approval||Explosion-Proof Construction / NEPSI
（National Supervision and Inspection Center for Explosion Protection and Safety Instrumentation）
Heat Source : Hot water circulation / Steam heating type also available upon inquiries
- The control panel is provided together with vaporizer
- Worldwide voltage available
Heater : 200 / 220 / 380 / 415 / 440 / 460V
Control circuit : 220V
- Ambient temperature 0℃ ~ 40℃
Sample installation image
Application example of Ammonia : METAL NITRIDING (METAL HEAT TREATMENT)
Operation image of Ammonia vaporizer for nitriding
Gas Nitriding is a heat treatment that infiltrates active nitrogen into the metal surface to increase hardness.
In this process, ammonia is flowed into the Nitriding furnace as atmospheric gas.
In the high temperature Nitriding furnace above 500℃, ammonia is decomposed into nitrogen and hydrogen on the steel surface, and the active nitrogen soaks into the steel surface.
Active nitrogen reacts with aluminum, chromium, etc. inside the steel to form a strong nitrogen compound.
In addition to hardening parts that require high hardness, such as metal parts used in automobile engines, it is also applied to surface coatings that prevent frying pans from burning.
Application example of Ammonia : AMMONIA CRACKER
Ammonia as Hydrogen carrier : Ammonia Cracking technology to extract Hydrogen from Ammonia
As countries around the world advocate carbon-free clean energy, Hydrogen is attracting attention as a next-generation carbon-free fuel.
However, the storage and transportation of Hydrogen gas, which is not easy to compress and liquefy, is a major issue.
On the other hand, Ammonia, which also has carbon-free characteristics and can be easily liquefied unlike Hydrogen, is a gas composed of Nitrogen and Hydrogen in a ratio of 1:3 and is used as an easy and efficient Hydrogen carrier.
Ammonia Cracking is a technology that decomposes vaporized Ammonia gas into Nitrogen and Hydrogen with a high-temperature catalyst, making it possible to efficiently extract Hydrogen from liquefied ammonia gas.
Ammonia vaporizer is used to vaporize liquefied ammonia with high vaporization heat in a stable manner.